# California Standards for 8-12

Pre-Algebra
Geometry
 The geometry skills and concepts developed in this discipline are useful to all students. Aside from learning these skills and concepts, students will develop their ability to construct formal, logical arguments and proofs in geometric settings and problems. CA_GE-1 Students demonstrate understanding by identifying and giving examples of undefined terms, axioms, theorems, and inductive and deductive reasoning. CA_GE-2 Students write geometric proofs, including proofs by contradiction. CA_GE-3 Students construct and judge the validity of a logical argument and give counterexamples to disprove a statement. CA_GE-4 Students prove basic theorems involving congruence and similarity. CA_GE-5 Students prove that triangles are congruent or similar, and they are able to use the concept of corresponding parts of congruent triangles. CA_GE-6 Students know and are able to use the triangle inequality theorem. CA_GE-7 Students prove and use theorems involving the properties of parallel lines cut by a transversal, the properties of quadrilaterals, and the properties of circles. CA_GE-8 Students know, derive, and solve problems involving the perimeter, circumference, area, volume, lateral area, and surface area of common geometric figures. CA_GE-9 Students compute the volumes and surface areas of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres; and students commit to memory the formulas for prisms, pyramids, and cylinders. CA_GE-10 Students compute areas of polygons, including rectangles, scalene triangles, equilateral triangles, rhombi, parallelograms, and trapezoids. CA_GE-11 Students determine how changes in dimensions affect the perimeter, area, and volume of common geometric figures and solids. CA_GE-12 Students find and use measures of sides and of interior and exterior angles of triangles and polygons to classify figures and solve problems. CA_GE-13 Students prove relationships between angles in polygons by using properties of complementary, supplementary, vertical, and exterior angles. CA_GE-14 Students prove the Pythagorean theorem. CA_GE-15 Students use the Pythagorean theorem to determine distance and find missing lengths of sides of right triangles. CA_GE-16 Students perform basic constructions with a straightedge and compass, such as angle bisectors, perpendicular bisectors, and the line parallel to a given line through a point off the line. CA_GE-17 Students prove theorems by using coordinate geometry, including the midpoint of a line segment, the distance formula, and various forms of equations of lines and circles. CA_GE-18 Students know the definitions of the basic trigonometric functions defined by the angles of a right triangle. They also know and are able to use elementary relationships between them. For example, tan( x ) = \frac{sin( x )}{cos( x )} , (sin( x ))^ 2 + (cos( x ))^2 = 1 . CA_GE-19 Students use trigonometric functions to solve for an unknown length of a side of a right triangle, given an angle and a length of a side. CA_GE-20 Students know and are able to use angle and side relationships in problems with special right triangles, such as 30°, 60°, and 90° triangles and 45°, 45°, and 90° triangles. CA_GE-21 Students prove and solve problems regarding relationships among chords, secants, tangents, inscribed angles, and inscribed and circumscribed polygons of circles. CA_GE-22 Students know the effect of rigid motions on figures in the coordinate plane and space, including rotations, translations, and reflections.
Algebra 2
Trigonometry
 Trigonometry uses the techniques that students have previously learned from the study of algebra and geometry. The trigonometric functions studied are defined geometrically rather than in terms of algebraic equations. Facility with these functions as well as the ability to prove basic identities regarding them is especially important for students intending to study calculus, more advanced mathematics, physics and other sciences, and engineering in college. CA_TR-1 Students understand the notion of angle and how to measure it, in both degrees and radians. They can convert between degrees and radians. CA_TR-2 Students know the definition of sine and cosine as y-and x-coordinates of points on the unit circle and are familiar with the graphs of the sine and cosine functions. CA_TR-3 Students know the identity cos^2(x) + sin^2(x) = 1 : 3.1 Students prove that this identity is equivalent to the Pythagorean theorem (i.e., students can prove this identity by using the Pythagorean theorem and, conversely, they can prove the Pythagorean theorem as a consequence of this identity). 3.2 Students prove other trigonometric identities and simplify others by using the identity cos^2(x) + sin^2(x) = 1 . For example, students use this identity to prove that sec^2(x) = tan^2(x) + 1 . CA_TR-4 Students graph functions of the form f(t) = A sin (Bt + C) or f(t) = A cos (Bt + C) and interpret A, B, and C in terms of amplitude, frequency, period, and phase shift. CA_TR-5 Students know the definitions of the tangent and cotangent functions and can graph them. CA_TR-6 Students know the definitions of the secant and cosecant functions and can graph them. CA_TR-7 Students know that the tangent of the angle that a line makes with the x-axis is equal to the slope of the line. CA_TR-8 Students know the definitions of the inverse trigonometric functions and can graph the functions. CA_TR-9 Students compute, by hand, the values of the trigonometric functions and the inverse trigonometric functions at various standard points. CA_TR-10 Students demonstrate an understanding of the addition formulas for sines and cosines and their proofs and can use those formulas to prove and/or simplify other trigonometric identities. CA_TR-11 Students demonstrate an understanding of half-angle and double-angle formulas for sines and cosines and can use those formulas to prove and/or simplify other trigonometric identities. CA_TR-12 Students use trigonometry to determine unknown sides or angles in right triangles. CA_TR-13 Students know the law of sines and the law of cosines and apply those laws to solve problems. CA_TR-14 Students determine the area of a triangle, given one angle and the two adjacent sides. CA_TR-15 Students are familiar with polar coordinates. In particular, they can determine polar coordinates of a point given in rectangular coordinates and vice versa. CA_TR-16 Students represent equations given in rectangular coordinates in terms of polar coordinates. CA_TR-17 Students are familiar with complex numbers. They can represent a complex number in polar form and know how to multiply complex numbers in their polar form. CA_TR-18 Students know DeMoivre’s theorem and can give nth roots of a complex number given in polar form. CA_TR-19 Students are adept at using trigonometry in a variety of applications and word problems. Mathematical Analysis This discipline combines many of the trigonometric, geometric, and algebraic techniques needed to prepare students for the study of calculus and strengthens their conceptual understanding of problems and mathematical reasoning in solving problems. These standards take a functional point of view toward those topics. The most significant new concept is that of limits. Mathematical analysis is often combined with a course in trigonometry or perhaps with one in linear algebra to make a yearlong precalculus course. 1.0 Students are familiar with, and can apply, polar coordinates and vectors in the plane. In particular, they can translate between polar and rectangular coordinates and can interpret polar coordinates and vectors graphically. 2.0 Students are adept at the arithmetic of complex numbers. They can use the trigonometric form of complex numbers and understand that a function of a complex variable can be viewed as a function of two real variables. They know the proof of DeMoivre’s theorem. 3.0 Students can give proofs of various formulas by using the technique of mathematical induction. 4.0 Students know the statement of, and can apply, the fundamental theorem of algebra. 5.0 Students are familiar with conic sections, both analytically and geometrically: 5.1 Students can take a quadratic equation in two variables; put it in standard form by completing the square and using rotations and translations, if necessary; determine what type of conic section the equation represents; and determine its geometric components (foci, asymptotes, and so forth). 5.2 Students can take a geometric description of a conic section—for example, the locus of points whose sum of its distances from (1, 0) and (-1, 0) is 6—and derive a quadratic equation representing it. 6.0 Students find the roots and poles of a rational function and can graph the function and locate its asymptotes. 7.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of functions and equations defined parametrically and can graph them. 8.0 Students are familiar with the notion of the limit of a sequence and the limit of a function as the independent variable approaches a number or infinity. They determine whether certain sequences converge or diverge.
Probability and Statistics
 This discipline is an introduction to the study of probability, interpretation of data, and fundamental statistical problem solving. Mastery of this academic content will provide students with a solid foundation in probability and facility in processing statistical information. CA_PS-1 Students know the definition of the notion of independent events and can use the rules for addition, multiplication, and complementation to solve for probabilities of particular events in finite sample spaces. CA_PS-2 Students know the definition of conditional probability and use it to solve for probabilities in finite sample spaces. CA_PS-3 Students demonstrate an understanding of the notion of discrete random variables by using them to solve for the probabilities of outcomes, such as the probability of the occurrence of five heads in 14 coin tosses. CA_PS-4 Students are familiar with the standard distributions (normal, binomial, and exponential) and can use them to solve for events in problems in which the distribution belongs to those families. CA_PS-5 Students determine the mean and the standard deviation of a normally distributed random variable. CA_PS-6 Students know the definitions of the mean, median, and mode of a distribution of data and can compute each in particular situations. CA_PS-7 Students compute the variance and the standard deviation of a distribution of data. CA_PS-8 Students organize and describe distributions of data by using a number of different methods, including frequency tables, histograms, standard line and bar graphs, stem-and-leaf displays, scatterplots, and box-and-whisker plots.